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# *ET Literature Digest* #1 - Science, War and Society # Science and war ## Conflict, Security and the Reshaping of Society Ref : Dal Lago, Alessandro, and Salvatore Palidda, eds. Conflict, security and the reshaping of society: the civilization of war. Routledge, 2010. Doi : https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846315 Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `dual use` `security` War is not anymore an interstate conflict, it has lost its formal features to become an "occasional global force police" against a dangerous religion or culture and acquiring thus political-moral objectives ("humanitarian war"). Since the enemy operates on a global scale, traditional military instruments need to change, too, giving rise to a "fourth generation warfare" where the military industrial production integrates more with fundamental scientific research. Research policies are militarized not only in the sense that military technologies become the vector of the economic and civil development of a State, but also because war is "civilized" and becomes at the basis of the ways of getting knowledge and communicating in societies, especially inflected in terms of "security". The book analyzes different aspects of the militarization of society during peacetime. ## Science and Technology in the Global Cold War Ref : Oreskes, Naomi, and John Krige, eds. Science and technology in the global Cold War. MIT Press, 2014. Doi : https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.001.0001 Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `cold war` `technology` The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. ## Drone theory Ref : Chamayou, Grégoire. Drone theory. Penguin UK, 2015. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `drone` `unmanned systems technology` Drone Theory is a rigorous polemic against the increasing use of robot warfare around the world. Drawing on philosophical debate, moral lessons from Greek mythology and transcripts of conversations between drone operators, Drone Theory re-evaluates the socio-political impact of drone warfare on the world - and its people. ## War at the time of intelligent machines Ref : Landa, Manuel de. War in the age of intelligent machines. Zone Books, 1991. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `artificial intelligence` `arms` For De Landa, the development of new computerized weapons and surveillance technologies has a significance that goes far beyond military applications; he shows how it represents a profound historical shift in the relation of human beings both to machines and to information. The recent emergence of intelligent and autonomous bombs and missiles equipped with artificial perception and decision-making capabilities is, for De Landa, part of a much larger transfer of cognitive structures from humans to machines in the late twentieth century. # Israeli-Palestinian conflict ## War against the people: Israel, the Palestinians and Global Pacification Ref : Halper, Jeff. War against the people. London: Pluto Press, 2015. Doi : https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt183pct7 Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `Israel` `research` `securocratic war` How does Israel get away with it? In a decidedly post-colonial age, how is Israel able to sustain a half-century occupation over the Palestinians in the face of almost unanimous international opposition? Starting from this question, Halper explains how Occupation is a resource for Israel and in general how hegemony today is carried on thanks to securization and pacification. ## The drone eats with me: a Gaza diary Ref : Saif, Atef Abu. The drone eats with me: A Gaza diary. Beacon Press, 2015. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `drone` `Gaza` Atef Abu Saif describes 2014 Israelian attack on Gaza, which lasted 51 days, killing 2145 Palestinians (578 of them children), injuring over 11,000, and demolishing 17,200 homes. # Big data, algorithms and control ## Datacrazia Ref : Gambetta, Daniele, ed. Datacrazia: politica, cultura algoritmica e conflitti al tempo dei big data. D editore, 2018. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `data` `algorithms` Big data and algorithms are new "arms" of control, even inside democracies. ## Tecnologie del dominio Ref : Ippolita. Tecnologie del dominio. Meltemi, 2017. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `data` `algorithms` Big data and algorithms are new "arms" of control, even inside democracies. ## L'amore è fortissimo, il corpo no. Ref : https://www.wumingfoundation.com/giap/2019/12/lamore-e-fortissimo-il-corpo-no-1-twitter-addio/ Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `data` `control` An article by Wu Ming Foundation on social networks, data and control, starting from their experience. # Epistemology ## Che cos'è reale?: la scomparsa di Majorana Ref : Agamben, Giorgio. Che cos' è reale?: la scomparsa di Majorana. Neri Pozza, 2016. Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `Majorana` `fisica` Ettore Majorana, an Italian physicist, disappeared in 1938 for unknown reasons. Some people hypothesized that he was worried about the possible consequences of physics studies at that time, i.e. the development of the atomic bomb. In this book, Agamben uses this story to question about the relationship between reality and scientific statements and the ethical implications for researchers. Is what science investigates already "real"? How does science modify reality? # Other ## Cuba: medicina, scienza, rivoluzione. 1959-2014 Ref : Baracca, Angelo, and Rosella Franconi. Subalternity Vs. Hegemony, Cuba's Outstanding Achievements in Science and Biotechnology, 1959-2014. Springer, 2016. Doi : https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2017.050403 Editor : Maria Elena ###### tags: `Cuba` `biotechnology` `revolution` Just after Cuban revolution, in 1960, Castro told his people, who were mostly illiterate, that revolution couldn't happen without investing in science. Today, Cuba is one of the most advanced country for health conditions and biotechnological research. How could this happen? Which kind of research got funds in Cuba? Which relations did Cuban scientists keep with researchers both from the sovietic and capitalist countries?